什么是破产?

破产 is a legal proceeding involving a person or 业务 that is unable to repay their outstanding 债务. 破产程序开始于由 债务人,这是最常见的,或代表 债权人,这是不常见的. 所有债务人的 资产 are measured and evaluated, and the 资产 may be used to repay a portion of outstanding debt.

关键的外卖

  • 破产 is a legal proceeding carried out to allow individuals or 业务es freedom from their 债务, 同时也为债权人提供了偿还的机会.
  • 破产是由联邦法院处理的.S. 破产法.
  • There are various types of 破产, commonly referred to by their chapter within the U.S. 破产法.
  • 破产可以让你重新开始, but it will stay on your 信用报告s for a number of years and make it difficult to borrow in the future.

了解破产

破产 offers an individual or 业务 a chance to start fresh by forgiving 债务 that simply cannot be paid while giving 债权人 a chance to obtain some measure of 还款 基于个人或企业的资产 清算. 在理论上, the ability to file for 破产 benefits the overall economy by allowing people and companies a second chance to gain access to credit and by providing 债权人 with a portion of debt 还款. 破产程序顺利完成时, the 债务人 is relieved of the debt obligations that were incurred prior to filing for 破产.

美国所有的破产案件都是通过联邦法院处理的. 联邦破产案件的任何裁决都是由破产法官做出的, 包括 whether a 债务人 is eligible to file and whether they should be discharged of their 债务. 破产案件的管理通常由 受托人, an officer appointed by the United States 受托人的程序 of the 司法部, 代表债务人的 房地产 在进行. There is usually very little direct contact between the 债务人 and the judge unless there is some objection made in the case by a creditor.

破产申请的类型

破产 filings in the United States fall under one of several chapters of the 破产法, 包括 第七章,涉及资产清算; 第十一章,主要针对公司或个人 重组; and 第十三章,以较低的债务偿还债务 契约 或具体的付款计划. 破产申请费用各不相同, 这取决于破产的类型, 案件的复杂性, 和其他因素.

第七章破产

Individuals—and in some cases 业务es, with few or no 资产—typically file 第七章 破产. 它允许他们处理他们的 无担保债务,比如信用卡余额和医疗账单. 拥有非豁免资产者, 比如传家宝(估价高的收藏品, such as coin or stamp collections); second homes; and cash, 股票, or 债券 必须清算财产以偿还部分或全部无担保债务. A person filing 第七章 破产 is basically selling off their 资产 to clear their debt. People who have no valuable 资产 and only exempt property—such as household goods, 服装, 他们的职业工具, and a personal vehicle worth up to a certain value—may end up repaying no part of their unsecured debt.

破产

企业经常申请破产保护, 其目的是重组, 保持业务, 再一次变得有利可图. Filing 第十一章 破产 allows a company to create plans for profitability, 削减成本, 并找到新的方法来增加 收入. 他们的 优先股股东(如果有的话)仍可能收到付款,尽管普通股股东将不会收到.

9月. 1, 2021, U.S. 破产法庭法官罗伯特·德雷恩批准了4美元.50亿年 settlement of the 第十一章 破产 of OxyContin manufacturer Purdue Pharma LP. The settlement dissolves Purdue Pharma and creates a new public benefit company charged with funding opioid-addiction treatment and prevention. 它保护了前所有者萨克勒家族,他们将支付4美元.50亿年, 在九年, 包括 federal settlement fees—from legal claims related to the opioid epidemic. 普渡大学还同意公布3000万份与此案有关的文件.

例如, a housekeeping 业务 filing 第十一章 破产 might increase its rates slightly and offer 更多的 services to become profitable. 破产法第11章允许公司继续经营 业务活动 without interruption while working on a debt 还款 plan under the court's supervision. 在极少数情况下,个人也可以申请破产保护.

第十三章破产

Individuals who make too much money to qualify for 第七章 破产 may file under 第十三章,也被称为工薪阶层计划. 它允许个人,也允许企业, 有稳定的收入——创建可行的债务偿还计划. The 还款 plans are commonly in installments over the course of a three- to five-year period. 作为偿还债权人的交换条件, 法院允许这些债务人保留他们所有的财产, 包括其他非豁免财产.

其他破产申请

在第七章, 第十一章, 和第13章是最常见的破产程序, 尤其是对个人而言, 该法律还规定了其他几种类型:

  • 第九章 财政困难的市政当局可以破产, 包括城市, 城镇, 村庄, 县, 和学区. 在第九章, municipalities do not have to liquidate 资产 to repay their 债务 but are instead allowed to develop a plan for repaying them over time.
  • 第十章 破产, 在1978年就结束了, 是被破产法第11章取代的一种公司破产形式吗.
  • 第十二章 破产为家庭农场和渔业提供了救济. They are allowed to maintain their 业务es while working out a plan to repay their 债务.
  • 第15章 2005年,破产法被添加到法律中,以处理跨境案件, 涉及债务人, 资产, 债权人, 以及可能在多个国家的其他政党. 这种类型的申请通常在债务人的母国提出.

解除破产

当债务人收到清偿令时, 他们在法律上不再被要求支付命令中规定的债务. 更重要的是, any creditor listed on the discharge order cannot legally undertake any type of collection activity (such as making phone calls or sending letters) against the 债务人 once the discharge order is in force.

然而,并不是所有的债务都有资格被免除. 其中包括税收索赔, 债务人未列明的任何东西, 子女抚养费或赡养费, 人身伤害的债务, 债务是政府. 此外,任何 担保债权人 仍然可以强制执行 留置权 对债务人所有的财产,但留置权仍然有效的.

债务人不一定有解除债务的权利. 当破产申请被提交到法庭时, 债权人会收到通知,如果他们选择这样做,他们可以反对. If they do, they will need to file a complaint in the court before the deadline. This leads to the filing of an adversary proceeding to recover money owed or enforce a 留置权.

The discharge from 第七章 is usually granted about four months after the 债务人 files to petition for 破产. For any other type of 破产, the discharge can occur when it becomes practical.

破产的利与弊

Declaring 破产 can help relieve you of your legal obligation to pay your 债务 and save your home, 业务, 或财务运作的能力, 取决于你申请的是哪种破产申请. 但它也会降低你的信用评级, 这使得获得贷款更加困难, 抵押贷款, 或信用卡, 或者买房子或生意, 或者租一间公寓.

如果你想决定是否申请破产, 你的信用可能已经受损了. 但值得注意的是,根据《澳门威尼斯赌场》第7章提交的申请将保留在你的 信用报告 10年,而第13章将保留7年. 你申请新债务的任何债权人或放款人(如汽车贷款), 信用卡, 信用额度, 或抵押贷款)将在你的报告上看到解除, 什么会阻止你获得学分.