基础设施 is the general term for the basic physical systems of a 业务, region, or nation. 基础设施的例子包括交通系统, 通信网络, 污水, 水, 和电气系统. 这些系统往往是资本密集型和高成本投资, 对一个国家的经济发展和繁荣至关重要.
- 基础设施 are the basic systems that undergird the 结构 of the economy.
- 基础设施的例子包括交通设施, 电信网络, 和水供应.
- Large scale 基础设施 is usually produced by the public sector or publicly regulated monopolies, but at smaller scales 基础设施 can often be produced by private firms or through local collective action.
- 作为一种投资, 基础设施 tends to be less volatile than some other 资产类别es and is sometimes sought as an investment.
基础设施(基础设施)这个词首次出现是在19世纪80年代末. 这个词来自法语with 下文, 意思是“下面” 结构 意思是“建筑." 基础设施 is the foundation upon which the 结构 of the economy is built, 通常情况下. 1987年，美国国际开发署的一个专门小组.S. 国家研究委员会 adopted the term “public works 基础设施” to refer to functional modes including 高速公路, 机场, 电信, 和水供应, 以及这些元素所组成的组合系统.
适用于大型和小规模的组织框架, 基础设施 can include a variety of systems and 结构s as long as there are physical components required. 例如, 横跨城市的电网, state or country is 基础设施 based on the equipment involved and the intent to provide a service to the areas it supports. 类似的, the physical cabling and components making up the data network of a company operating within a specific location are also the 基础设施 for the 业务 in question, 因为它们是支持商业运作所必需的.
因为基础设施经常涉及到两者的生产 公共物品 或者是适合生产的商品 自然垄断行业, it is very typical to see public financing, control, supervision, or regulation of 基础设施. This usually takes the form of direct government production or production by a closely regulated, 法律认可的, 而且经常补贴 垄断. 在较小的尺度上, 基础设施 can also often take on the characteristics of club goods or goods most readily produced by localized monopolies, and can be provided within the context of a private firm producing 基础设施 for use within the firm or provided by localized arrangements of formal or informal collective action.
These make up the physical systems that make it necessary to run a modern, industrialized nation. 例子包括道路, 高速公路, 桥梁, as well as the capital/assets needed to make them operational (transit buses, 车辆, 石油钻井平台/炼油厂).
These are assets defined by a government as being essential to the functioning of a society and economy, 例如遮蔽和取暖设施, 电信, 公共卫生, 农业, 等. 在美国, 有一些机构负责这些关键的基础设施, such as Homeland Security (for the government and emergency services), 能源部, 和交通部.
连同上述的 行业, 基础设施 includes waste disposal services, such as garbage pickup and local dumps. 某些管理功能, 通常由不同的政府机构负责, 也是基础设施的一部分吗. 澳门威尼斯赌场和保健设施也可包括在内, along with specific research and development functions and necessary training facilities.
许多技术系统通常被称为基础设施, 例如网络设备和服务器, 由于它们提供了特定的关键功能 业务 环境. 没有 信息技术(IT) 基础设施, many 业务es struggle to share and move data in a way that promotes efficiency within the workplace. If IT 基础设施 fails, many 业务 functions cannot be performed.
In 2005, Skyway Concession Company entered into a 99-year lease with the City of Chicago to operate and maintain the Chicago Skyway Bridge. 作为协议的一部分, Skyway receives all toll and concession revenue generated by the bridge, 而城市从1美元中获益.83 billion cash infusion and is no longer responsible for maintaining the bridge.
Individuals may also choose to fund improvements to certain pieces of public 基础设施. 例如, 个人可以出资改善医院, 学校, 或者当地执法部门的努力.